Amethyst is the purple variety of quartz crystal. The deeper the purple colour, the more highly valued the stone is. Amethyst is said to bring good luck and to radiate love.
Carnelian is a dramatic, translucent red or orange variety of quartz agate. It is believed to benefit the wearer's health and love life. Most carnelian comes from Brazil, India, Siberia, and Germany.
Chrysoprase is a form of silica that contains small quantities of nickel. Its colour is normally apple-green but it varies to deep green. The best known sources of chrysoprase are Queensland, Western Australia, Germany, Poland, Russia, Arizona, California, and Brazil.
Coral is the skeleton of a marine organism which existed as small sea anemone like polyps. It has a delicate red or pink colour.
Fluorite used to be called fluorspar and varies in colour from translucent purple to emerald green. It is said to absorb and neutralize negative vibrations.
Freshwater pearls are natural or cultured pearls that grew inside of freshwater mollusks. They are produced in Japan and the United States, but are now almost exclusive to China.
Green agate is a form of agate which is a variety of quartz crystal and develops in the lining or filling of rock cavities and fissures, sometimes forming geodes.
9ct gold jewellery is made of a mix of precious metals. Most 9ct gold jewellery, of medium colour, is commonly made of about 37.5% silver, 12.1% copper, and 44.4% zinc. 9 carat gold also looks almost identical to 24 carat gold, the purest gold.
Gold-filled jewellery, also known as "rolled gold" or "rolled gold plate" is where a hollow tube of usually 14ct gold (sometimes 10ct) is filled with a base metal such as brass and bonded with heat and pressure. This tube of gold is approximately 100 times thicker than gold plate so that with normal wear it will never tarnish, chip or wear off. By law this layer of gold has to be at least 1/20 of the total weight of the metal portion of the piece of jewellery.
Gold plated is where a thin layer of gold is deposited onto copper or silver (to make silver gilt) by chemical or electrochemical means. Depending on how thick the gold layer is will influence how quickly the surface tarnishes. Copper, which also migrates into gold, does so more slowly than silver. A barrier metal layer is used to counter this effect. The copper is usually further plated with nickel. A gold-plated silver article is usually a silver base metal with layers of copper, nickel, and gold deposited on top of it.
Golden quartzite is a form of quartzite. Quartzite was originally sandstone, converted through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression. Pure quartzite varies from white to grey but due to varying amounts of iron oxide, can occur in various shades of pink and red. Other colours, such as yellow and orange, are due to other mineral impurities.
Jade is a semiprecious gemstone which is usually green but sometimes whitish and consists of jadeite or nephrite. Jadeite is variable in colour and rarer so more valuable. Nephrite is the more common and mostly strong green in colour, but also comes in varieties of green, blue-grey, grey, yellow-brown and white. It is found in more locations than jadeite. It is said that jade stimulates creativity and mental agility, while also having a balancing and harmonising effect.
Jet occurs in black or dark brown and is a variety of coal known as lignite. The finest jet comes from England. Jet is said to neutralize negative energies. Fascinated jet makes it ultra sparkly when worn.
Labradorite is an almost opaque form of feldspar in a grey-green colour with eye-catching blue-green flashes. Labradorite is found in Northeastern Europe and considered a power stone, allowing you to strengthen your intuitions.
Lapis Lazuli abbreviated to Lapis, is a relatively rare semi-precious stone formed from more than one mineral with intense blue color. The finest Lapis is lightly dusted with small flecks of golden pyrite. It has been mined for over 6,000 years and can be found from Afghanistan to as far-east as Siberia. Lapis is regarded by many people around the world as the stone of friendship and truth.
Moonstone is a beautiful variety of the feldspar mineral group. Traditional moonstones are transparent with a bluish shimmer and were originally found in Sri Lanka. Their shimmer is created due to the way that light rays are refracted and scattered within the stone.
Moss agate is white quartz with green patterns inside resembling moss. It’s pattern and colour are formed by magnesium or iron oxides within the mineral. Moss agate also comes with brown or black patterns. It formed in weathered volcanic rock areas such as the Yellowstone National Park in Montana and within limestone and granite. It is said to strengthen the wearer in times of stress.
Mother of pearl is otherwise known as nacre and produced by mollusks as an inner shell layer. It is very strong and beautifully iridescent.
Petrified wood is where wood has been fossilized. Petrifaction occurs underground where mineral rich water deposits a silicate such as quartz, into the plant cells, causing them to decay and a stone mould to form in their place. Elements such as magnesium, iron and copper in the water give petrified wood a variety of colour ranges such as yellow or red. In general, wood takes less than 100 years to petrify.
Prehnite is a hydrated calcium aluminum silicate which is commonly formed in rock cavities. It is translucent and it’s colour varies in light green, yellow green or white. It is found in Australia, Canada, China, Germany, India, Namibia, Scotland, South Africa and the USA. Prehnite is said to enhance inner knowledge.
Rock crystal is the transparent and purest form of quartz and resembles solid glass.
Rutilate quartz is quartz with a mineral called rutile running through it. Rutile has a high refraction so it appears in long, thin shots of colour. Its name was derived from Rutilus, the Latin word for red, as it appears in a lovely deep red colour but it can also be found in brown and grey tones.
Sea bamboo is a type of coral.
Silver-gilt or gilded/gilt silver is silver coated with a fine gold layer. The gilding of the silver greatly reduces the need for cleaning or polishing the metal.
Silver plated is where a base metal usually copper is coated with a layer of silver to stop it from corroding, also known as electroplating or EPNS. EPNS or electroplated silver can be identified as it is stamped with the letters EPNS which stand for electroplated nickel silver.
Smoky quartz is a variety of quartz crystal which is variable in colour from brown to black and sometimes grey. Natural smoky quartz often occurs in granite rocks which are exposed to a small but persistent amount of radioactivity. It is produced in Brazil, Colorado and the Swiss Alps.
Sterling silver is the international silver standard, 92.5% pure silver content, hallmark 925 and 7.5% by weight of other metals, usually copper, to make the piece harder.
Swarovski crystal is the brand name for the range of precision cut crystal glass produced near Zurich, Switzerland. The crystals contain 32% lead to maximize refraction and are cut and polished using techniques invented by Daniel Swarovski. Swarovski crystals are unmatched in quality and brilliance. They are considered the "Diamond of the Crystal Market."
Tourmaline is a complex silicate which is hard and durable. It is formed in many colours including green, clear and blue and often combinations of two or three colours can occur in one stone. It is mainly found in Brazil and is said to aid meditation and protect the wearer from danger.
Turquoise is a blue to grey green mineral consisting of copper aluminum phosphate. It is formed during the weathering and oxidation of pre-existing minerals and usually found in arid regions; filling or encrusting cavities and fractures in volcanic rocks.
Yellow opal is a form of opal, a translucent mineral, known for its rich iridescence, consisting of hydrated silica of variable colours. It is most predominant in volcanic areas, especially where there is hot-spring activity. The finest stones have been found in Australia. Yellow opal is said to amplify positive emotions.